HAZARD ANALYSIS CRITICAL CONTROL POINT (HACCP)
QMRS assess the
prerequisites programs (GMPs) that are essential for HACCP success and
design/develop the format of HACCP plans
QMRS issue a “Certificate of
GMPs Compliance”, if the facility found to
be fulfilling the HACCP pre-requisites requirements
QMRS courses are accredited by
the "International HACCP Alliance“ organization
completes the training program, receives a Certificate of Completion”
from QMRS displaying the Alliance Seal, which indicate the International HACCP
WHAT IS HACCP PLAN?
HISTORY & BACKGROUND
HACCP is a management
system in which food safety is addressed through the analysis and
control of biological, chemical, and physical hazards from raw material
production, procurement and handling, to manufacturing, distribution and
consumption of the finished product. For successful implementation of a
HACCP plan, management must be strongly committed to the HACCP concept.
HACCP is designed for
use in all segments of the food industry.
Prerequisite programs such as Good Manufacturing Practices
(GMPs) are an essential foundation for the development and
implementation of successful HACCP plans. Food safety systems based on
the HACCP principles have been successfully applied in food processing
plants, retail food stores, and food service operations.
The HACCP concept was initiated in the 1960's by an American company
(the Pillsbury Company), the US Army, and NASA as a collaborative
development of the production of safe foods for the space program. NASA
wanted a "zero defects" program to guarantee safety in the foods that
astronauts would be consuming in space. “Pillsbury” therefore,
introduced and adopted HACCP as a system that could provide the greatest
safety while reducing dependence on finished product sampling and
testing. The National Academy of Science (USA) recommended in 1985 that
the HACCP approach be adopted in food processing establishments to
ensure food safety. Since then, HACCP has been recognized
internationally as a logical tool towards a more modern, scientifically
based inspection system.
Alimentarius (FAO/WHO) Food Hygiene Committee mandated a working group
in 1991 that has developed guidelines for HACCP application. This
document has been well received and is getting wide international
acceptance. The concepts incorporated in the Canadian model; the
Canadian Food Inspection Agency requirements are consistent with the
Codex approach towards HACCP.
INSPECTION AGENCY (CFIA)
Canada has a very effective food inspection system. The Food Safety
Enhancement Program (FSEP) is the Canadian Food Inspection Agency’s
(CFIA) approach to encourage and support the development, implementation
and maintenance of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP)
systems in all federally registered establishments of the meat, dairy,
honey, maple syrup, processed fruit and vegetable, shell egg, processed
egg and poultry hatchery sectors. The core of FSEP is the
internationally recognized HACCP system.
The seven principles
of HACCP have been universally accepted by government agencies, trade
associations and the food industry around the world.
The following is a
brief description of the requirements to develop and implement an
effective HACCP plans, and how QMRS can assist you to achieve HACCP
certification for your employees and facility.
Prerequisite programs are defined as universal steps or procedures that
control the operational conditions within a food establishment allowing
for environmental conditions that are favourable to the production of
are the foundation of the HACCP plans and must be adequate and
effective. If any portion of a prerequisite programs is not adequately
controlled, then additional critical control points may have to be
identified, monitored and maintained under the HACCP plans. All
prerequisite programs should be documented and regularly audited, and
are established and maintained separately from the HACCP plan.
In summary, effective
prerequisite programs will ensure that the integrity of HACCP plans is
maintained and that the manufactured product is safe.
Plant management should establish and implement the
Premises: Out side property,
building, sanitary facilities, and water
and Storage: Food carriers,
temperature control storage of incoming materials, non-food chemicals
and finished products.
General equipments design, installation, maintenance, and calibration
Personnel Training: Hygiene and
and Pest Control: Establish and follow written sanitation
and pest control programs.
Recalls: Recall procedures and
The format of HACCP plans will vary. It is essential that the unique
conditions within each facility be considered during the development of
all components of the HACCP plan. In many cases the plans will be
product and process specific. However, some plans may use a unit
In the development of
a HACCP plan, five preliminary tasks need to be accomplished before the
application of the HACCP principles to a specific product and process.
Assemble the HACCP Team. The first task in developing a HACCP plan is to assemble a HACCP team.
The HACCP team consisting of individuals who have specific knowledge
and expertise appropriate to the product and process. It is the team's
responsibility to develop the HACCP plan.
Describe the food and its
distributionThis consists of a general
description of the food, ingredients, and processing methods. The
method of distribution should be described along with information on
whether the food is to be distributed frozen, refrigerated, or at
Describe the intended use and
consumers of the food. Describe the normal expected use of the food.
The intended consumers may be the general public or a particular
segment of the population.
Develop a flow diagram. The purpose of a flow diagram is to provide a clear, simple outline of
the steps involved in the process. The scope of the flow diagram must
cover all the steps in the process, which are directly under the
control of the establishment. In addition, the flow diagram can
include steps in the food chain that occurs in the establishment
the flow diagram. The HACCP team should perform an on-site review of the operation to
verify the accuracy and completeness of the flow diagram.
Modifications should be made to the flow diagram as necessary and
After these five
preliminary tasks have been completed, the seven principles of HACCP are
HACCP is based
on the following seven principles:
Identify the potential hazards associated with food production at all
stages, from growth, processing, manufacturing, and distribution to the
point of consumption. Assess the likelihood of occurrence of the hazards
and identify preventive measures for their control (risk management).
Determine the points, procedures, and operational steps that can be
controlled to eliminate the hazards or minimize their likelihood of
occurrence; these are the critical control points (CCPs).
Establish critical limits, which must be met to ensure that the CCPs are
Establish a system to monitor control of CCPs by scheduled testing or
Establish the corrective action to be taken, when monitoring indicates
that a particular CCP is not under control.
Establish procedures for verification, which include supplementary tests
and procedures to confirm that the HACCP system is working effectively.
Establish documentation concerning all procedures and records
appropriate to these principles and their application.
HACCP (Sequence for
The following sequence of 12 steps is the recommended approach for the
development of a HACCP program. This logic sequence has been agreed to
at the international level by a HACCP working group of Codex
Alimentarius (WHO/FAO). The seven basic principles of HACCP are
indicated in the brackets
the HACCP team
process flow diagram and plant schematic
verification of flow diagram and plant schematic
6. List hazards
associated with each step (Principle 1)
HACCP decision tree to determine the CCP (Principle 2)
critical limits (Principle 3)
monitoring procedures (Principle 4)
deviation procedures (Principle 5)
verification procedures (Principle 6)
record keeping / documentation for principles one through six
In brief, the key
element of a HACCP based system is its preventative nature and the
exercising of control throughout the manufacturing process, at critical
steps called Critical Control Points (CCP). By doing so, defects, which
could impact on the safety of the food being processed can be readily
detected and corrected at these points before the product is completely
processed and packaged.
Most companies will
find that many of the HACCP system requirements are already in place and
operable in their plants. However, some facilities still have not
established the system. It is, therefore, the objective of QMRS
to assist the food industry to design, test, and apply a Food Safety
Program, building on HACCP principles.
Although discussing the above tasks in any particulars is beyond the
scope of this page, we have chosen to describe the first task
the HACCP team)
in some details, in order to provide the facility management with the
basic necessities to start the HACCP development process. Below are the
ASSEMBLE THE HACCP TEAM
When selecting the team, the management should
Those who will be involved in
Those who will be involved in
determination of critical control points
Those who will monitor critical
Those who will verify operations
at critical control points
Those who will examine samples
and perform verification procedures
Selected personnel should have a basic
Technology and equipment used on
the processing lines
Practical aspects of the food operations
The flow and technology of the process
Applied aspects of food microbiology
HACCP principles and techniques
is essential that the team members be trained on the Principles of
Food Hygiene and the application of the HACCP system
The HACCP team should identify the scope of the
Limit the study to a specific
product and process
Define the type(s) of hazards to
be included (e.g. biological, chemical, physical)
Define the part of the food chain
to be studied
The team must include a coordinator
(chairperson) whose role is to:
Ensure that the composition of the
team meets the needs of the study
Suggest changes to the team if
Coordinate the team's work
that the agreed established plan is followed
Share the work and responsibilities
Ensure that a systematic approach is
Ensure that the scope of the study is
Chair meetings so that team members
can freely express their ideas
Represent the team before management
Provide management with an estimate
of the time, money and labour required for the study
This is to assure
that all individuals involved in the program are properly trained so
they understand their role and can effectively fulfill their
responsibilities. Specific training activities should include courses,
workshops, working instructions and procedures that outline the tasks of
the employee who are monitoring each CCP. Therefore, plant management
must provide adequate resources for thorough education and training. In
fact, effective trainings considered as an important prerequisite to
successful implementation of a HACCP plan.
is a leading provider of food safety training. Our instructors are Ph.D.
holders. We have an International expertise in the Middle East (Saudi
Arabia and other Arab Gulf countries, North Africa, Egypt, and Iran).
QMRS provides two accredited training
This course is
designed to address all aspects of Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs)
B. HACCP PRINCIPLES, DEVELOPMENT, AND IMPLEMENTATION PROGRAM
This program is
designed to provide the trainees with all the information necessary on
the seven principles of HACCP, how they relate to prerequisite programs,
how to write HACCP plans and its implementation
These courses are
ideal for operational team who want a thorough understanding of their
company's HACCP requirements.
For full description
of these courses please click on
In this context, it
might be necessary to mention that:
QMRS HACCP courses have been
designed to meet the training requirements established by the FAO Codex
Alimentarius Commission guideline and the Canadian Food Inspection
QMRS HACCP courses have been
reviewed and accredited by “The International HACCP Alliance
“organization (Please click on the link below). to verify
that QMRS name is among the Accredited Introductory HACCP
Training Programs Providers and Approved Lead Instructors
instructor (Dr. Jalal Mokhalalati) has been accredited by “International
HACCP Alliance” Organization” as a “Lead Instructor”
successfully will complete the training program, will receive “a
certificate of completion” from QMRS displaying the Alliance
Seal, which indicate the International HACCP Alliance Accreditation.
HACCP AUDIT &
manufacturing plants are not fully ready for certification, but would
like an expert consultation to prepare for implementing or improving the
current organization GMPs-HACCP and/or ISO 9001:2000 programs.
conduct third party audits (Off-site and On-Site audit) to determine
your plant's status/readiness to develop and implement the best but
cost-effective GMPs and Quality Management System programs and to ensure that
your facility meets the requirements of local and international
If we found that your
HACCP plan is properly implemented and complies with FAO/WHO Codex and
the Canadian CFIA standards, QMRS will provide you with a
certificate stating that the HACCP program in your plant has
successfully passed the QMRS HACCP audit.
IN BRIEF, QMRS CAN
ASSIST YOU IN:
the effectiveness of your prerequisite programs through conducting
On-site GMPs audit.
you with all the documents (SOPs & templates) needed to fulfill the
principles of HACCP.
test, and develop the format of HACCP plans
accredited HACCP training Programs.
We provide you with a
certificate stating that your plant has
successfully passed the HACCP audit.
courses can be customized to accommodate specific facility needs.
Please Let us know
the level of the needed support that suits your organization. QMRS
can be your HACCP partner.
For more information
about QMRS INTERNATIONAL HACCP programs, please click
HERE to send us an e-mail.
Certification of Your HACCP Advantage System
status obtained from the
General Standards Board (CGSB)
after a successful HACCP Advantage
Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food (OMAF)
has designated and recognized the Canadian General Standards Board (CGSB)
as the certification body for the HACCP Advantage; and OMAF recognizes
HACCP Advantage systems certified by CGSB.
STEPS FOR A CERTIFICATION AND RECOGNITION
PREPARING FOR A
Before you apply for certification you should ensure that your
operations and personnel are ready for auditing. .
would be sensible to develop a regular schedule of internal audits to
ensure that your system continues to operate effectively.
personnel with HACCP responsibilities should be trained and able to
answer interview questions regarding their roles and specific duties and
where to find information (e.g., manuals, supporting materials)
regarding their roles
of Outsourcing Effectiveness
Ensure that outsourced programs (e.g., pest control or sanitation) are
effective, meet the standards and are properly documented.
better organized your documentation, the better your HACCP system will
be and the smoother your audits will proceed.
APPLY TO CGSB FOR
(For Canadian Facilities only)
Prepare the following items in the application package:
Letter of Intent indicating management commitment
Identification of HACCP coordinator/team
Checklist indicating all prerequisite program standards have been
List of products and HACCP plan groupings
Checklist of HACCP plan forms 1–8 for each HACCP plan
Blank copies of some sample records
Written procedures for program maintenance including logbook
Internal audit results
Application forms provided by CGSB.
CGSB CERTIFICATION PROCESS
auditors will conduct audits in three general phases:
documentation review is conducted to ensure that no major components
of your HACCP system are missing.
On-Site Systems Audit
systems audit is essentially a “desk audit” conducted to confirm that
you have effectively addressed all the prerequisite program standards
and that your HACCP plan(s) are complete and effective.
On-Site Verification Audit
on-site verification ensures that the written prerequisites programs
and HACCP plan(s) are performed as written
provides operator with a written audit report that includes CARs for
all outstanding non-conformances.
Operator provides CGSB with CAPs for all identified CARs within
specified time frame.
verification audit allows the auditor(s) to confirm that your written
HACCP system has been effectively implemented as written.
In order for your
facility to be HACCP certified, the following conditions must be met:
CGSB auditors recommend
your facility for certification assuming all non-conformances are
Corrective actions for
all non-conformances are submitted to CGSB for review within required
CGSB auditors find all
corrective actions acceptable.
CGSB will notify the
concerned governmental body (OMAF) of certified (and decertified)
auditing and corrective actions, you will receive a HACCP Advantage
learn more about this accreditation body please click
THE FOOD SAFETY AND TRACEABILITY INITIATIVE (FSTI)
The FSTI provides cost-share funding to individual facilities to
support the implementation of written food safety programs and
working traceability systems through the purchase and installation
of equipment, the certification of Recognized Food Safety Programs
and/or the training of employees.
Projects eligible for cost sharing include:
Implementing a Food Safety Program or a Traceability System
to $20,000 per applicant, with 75 percent of an applicant’s eligible
costs reimbursed by
the government, to develop, write and implement a food safety
program, individual food
safety practices, or a working traceability system.
Supporting Investment in an Existing Food Safety Program
to $20,000 per applicant, with 75 percent of an applicant’s eligible
costs will be reimbursed by the government.
Only applicants currently certified,
or audited under
a Recognized Food Safety Program and whose project involves further
food safety improvements to their existing food safety program may
apply under this option.
Improving Food Safety or Traceability
to $5,000 per applicant, with 75 percent of an applicant’s eligible
costs reimbursed by
the government, to purchase equipment, engage in training, or
obtain certification, audit or
verification (first time only) of a Recognized Food Safety Program
Under the FSTI, an applicant may submit separate applications to
carry out more than one
project. However, there is a maximum total funding limit of $20,000
per applicant under the
Additional information and advice on how to develop a food safety
program, a traceability
system or how to complete an application form is available from the
Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs
feel free to call Dr Jalal at 613 526 0471 to discuss your
DID YOU KNOW THAT …
The principal (Dr. Jalal Mokhalalati) has contributed in the “4th Dubai
International Food Safety Conference” (24 – 26 February 2009) by
presenting a work where he proposed a new and easy approach to develop a
Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) plan
Please see below the abstract. The original article is under
TOWARDS A SIMPLE APPROACH TO DEVELOP A HAZARD ANALYSIS
AND CRITICAL CONTROL POINT (HACCP) PLAN
Jalal Mokhalalati, B.Sc., M.Sc., Ph.D. (London)
4th Dubai International Food Safety Conference (24 – 26
It has been reported that difficulties often encountered in applying the
Codex HACCP system in small food businesses and that one of the
criticisms of HACCP plan development is its requirement for
documentation. In view of these observations, the author is proposing a
simple approach to develop a HACCP plan to secure an adequate food
Although the approach is still faithful to the seven HACCP principles,
it does not however require the HACCP team to follow the traditional 10
Forms and decision tree as outlined in the current guidelines. The
author methodology is based on evaluation of the FAO HACCP Forms
functions and format.
In this work it is suggested that the HACCP team objective should be to
focus only on the hazards (biological, chemical, and physical), which
are under the manufacturing facility control (Internal Hazards) and to
exclude those hazards, which are out of the facility control (External
The proposed work objective is to make the HACCP implementation simpler
and easier. It is hoped that the approach will assist regulatory agents’
officials to reduce the number of barriers, which prevent small food
facilities of implementing the HACCP program through minimize the